Build My First AVM by Sklearn in Colab

Figure 0 An AVM — house price estimator by inputting housing attributes
#install scikit-learn
! pip install scikit-learn
#import tools: NumPy for Advanced linear algebra, Matplotlib for Visualization and data plotting, Pandas for Data manipulation and analysis, Seaborn for heatmap plot, Sklearn for Optimization.#from sklearn import the algorithm to split the training set and testing set, import the Linear Regression algorithm to estimate the coefficients for the AVM, import r2_score to report the R-squared.import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
import seaborn as sns
import sklearn.metrics as metrics
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
from sklearn.linear_model import LinearRegression
from sklearn.metrics import r2_score
#This example demonstrates how to retrieve a csv file from a google drive first
#click FILE above and click 'Locate in Drive' to upload the csv file to your authorized google drive, it requires an authorization process
from google.colab import drive
#specify the drive/.../filename to readdata=pd.read_csv("drive/MyDrive/Colab Notebooks/AKL Housing Prices 2017.csv")
#show the information and descriptions of the data collected
#only numeric data can be processed by regression models
#plot scatterplots of each attribute with price
#if dataset contains non-numeric data, then add if data[attribute].dtypes!="O"] to exclude
attribute = [col for col in data.columns]
for attribute in attribute:
sns.scatterplot(x = data[attribute], y = data['price'])
Figure 1 Scatterplots of No. of Bedrooms and Building Floor Area with House Prices.
#Plot all the Pearson Correlation Coefficients by a Heatmapplt.figure(figsize=(20,20))
cor = data.corr()
sns.heatmap(cor, annot=True,
Figure 2 a heatmap of the correlation coefficients
#Report a specified correlation coefficientprint(data[["Bedrm","price"]].corr())
#Build a simple AVM by splitting the dataset into training set and testing set
#Here specify a test set of a randomized 10% of the data
X=data.drop(['price'], axis=1) #axis=1 means along the column, axis=0 means along the row
X_train,X_test,y_train,y_test = train_test_split(X,y,test_size=0.1,random_state=42)
#Machine Learning by Linear Regressionlr=LinearRegression(),y_train)
#Report R-squared and MSEy_predLR = lr.predict(X_test)
r2=r2_score(y_test, y_predLR)
print("R-Squared", format(r2))
mse = metrics.mean_squared_error(y_test, y_predLR)
print("Mean Squared Error {}".format(mse))
#compare the actual and the predicted in 2 decimal places (y_test, y_predLR)df = pd.DataFrame({'Actual': y_test, 'Predicted': y_predLR})
#scatterplot the actual and the predicted
plt.scatter(y_test, y_predLR, color='red')
Figure 3 Actual and Predicted by sklearn LR
#make a new predictionXnew = [[2,1,78,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0]]
ynew = lr.predict(Xnew)
house price estimate [814752.3465421]
#AVM Coefficients
print("Const", lr.intercept_, "Attributes Coeff", lr.coef_)
#c.f. Statistical Linear Regression Results
#X=data.drop(['price'], axis=1)
import statsmodels.api as sm
X2 = sm.add_constant(X)
est = sm.OLS(y, X2)
est2 =



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